For Healthcare Professionals: Medical/Clinical Information
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The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study, conducted by the University
of Minnesota and Johns Hopkins, investigated the magnesium and Coronary
Heart Disease (CHD) connection in 13,922 patients, CHD free at baseline,
over a period of 4 to 7 years.
In the report "Is Low Magnesium Concentration a Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease? The ARIC Study," published in the American Heart Journal (136(3):480-490, 1998), the authors concluded that the "findings suggest that low magnesium concentration may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis or acute thrombosis."
Information from research like the ARIC Study is leading many to emphasize adequate magnesium intake.
Magnesium (Mg), an essential element for human health and the second most abundant intracellular cation, has been identified as a cofactor in more than 300 enzymatic reactions involving energy metabolism and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. In addition, it is nature's own calcium channel blocker and needed for the integrity of the cell membrane.
Approximately half of the total magnesium in the body is present in soft tissue, and the other half in bone. Less than 1% of the total body magnesium is present in blood with only about 0.3% in serum; the tissue that is most frequently measured to assess magnesium status in the body; therefore, assessment of magnesium status is problematic.
The clinical laboratory evaluation of magnesium status is primarily limited to the total and free serum magnesium concentration and a 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium. However, results for these tests do not necessarily correlate with intracellular magnesium due to the very slow rate for magnesium equilibrium. Thus, there is no readily available test to accurately determine intracellular/total body magnesium status.
Magnesium intake is a key to health and magnesium balance. Among the most potent reinforcements
that magnesium is an essential nutrient for good health, is the recent increase in the Recommended
Daily Allowance (USRDA) by the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences.
In 1997, the USRDA was raised from approximately 5 to 6 mg/day or 420 mg/day for men and 320 mg/day for women.
It is estimated that 90% of Americans consume a diet in which the magnesium intake is below the
USRDA. According to the USDA's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, the mean magnesium
intake by males older than 9 was 323 mg/day (below the USRDA of 440 mg/day) and by females older
than 9 was 228 mg/day (below the USRDA of 320 mg/day). This study also showed that magnesium
intake decreases further at age 70 and older. Because the average diet is deficient in magnesium,
two tablets of Mag-Ox daily provides important insurance for the irregular diet.
Mag-Ox makes sense for cardiovascular concerns because of low magnesium levels, whether
specifically for those taking magnesium-depleting medications including diuretics or more generally as a dietary supplement recommendation.
Mag-Ox gives your patients more magnesium per tablet than another leading brand.
Several drugs can cause magnesium depletion, primarily by increasing excretion of magnesium
by the kidneys. The most common magnesium-depleting drugs are the following: diuretics (furosemide, ethacrynic acid,
and thiazides), antibiotics (gentamicin, tobramycin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, and amphotericin b),
cisplatin, and cyclosporine. Patients on any of these drugs should be considered for ongoing
magnesium supplementation with Mag-Ox.
Diuretics (such as loop and thiazide diuretics) are a major cause of electrolyte depletion.
An expert panel considered the electrolyte depleting effect of diuretics and reported the following: "Many patients with potassium depletion may also have magnesium deficiency. In particular, loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) produce substantial serum and intracellular potassium and magnesium loss."
The complete report can be found in an article titled "
New Guidelines for Potassium
Replacement in Clinical Practice: A Contemporary Review by National Council on Potassium
in Clinical Practice" published in Archives Internal Medicine (Volume 160(16).
September 11, 2000. 2429-2436.).
Diuretic patients are at risk for magnesium depletion, two tablets of Mag-Ox will help fight this depletion.